Effects on Human Health

The vehicular pollutant have damaging effects on both human health and ecology. The health effects of pollution vary in the degree of severity,covering a range of minor effects to serious illness, as well as premature death in certain cases. These pollutants are believed to directly affect the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In particular, high levels of Sulphur dioxide and Suspended Particulate Matter are associated with increased mortality, morbidity and impaired pulmonary function.

Pollutant Effect on Human Health

Carbon Monoxide

Affects the cardio vascular system, exacerbating cardiovascular disease symptoms, particularly angina; may also particularly affect fetuses, sick, anemic and young children, affects nervous system impairing physical coordination, vision and judgments, creating nausea and headaches, reducing productivity and increasing personal discomfort.

Nitrogen Oxides

Increased susceptibility to infections, pulmonary diseases, impairment of lung function and eye, nose and throat irritations.

Sulphur Dioxide

Affect lung function adversely.

Particulate Matter and Respirable Particulate Matter (SPM and RPM)

Fine particulate matter may be toxic in itself or may carry toxic (including carcinogenic) trace substance, and can alter the immune system. Fine particulates penetrate deep into the respiratory system irritating lung tissue and causing long-term disorders.


Impairs liver and kidney, causes brain damage in children resulting in lower I.Q., hyperactivity and reduced ability to concentrate.


Both toxic and carcinogenic. Excessive incidence of leukemia (blood cancer) in high exposure areas.

Exhaust Emission Standards

The pollution standards for in use vehicles have been prescribed under Rule 115(2) of Central Motor vehicles Rules, 1989. They are:

Petrol / CNG / LPG Vehicles:

a) Idling Carbon Monoxide emission limit for all two and three-wheeled vehicles should not exceed 4.5%.

b) Idling Carbon Monoxide Emission limit for all vehicles other than two and three- wheelers should not exceed 3%.

Diesel Vehicles:

Smoke density for all diesel driven vehicles should not exceed 65 hartridge Smoke Units.

Maintenance Tips

A well-maintained vehicle not only pollutes less but also gives better fuel mileage. While servicing the vehicle ask your workshop to pay attention to the following for better maintenance and lower pollution levels from your petrol driven vehicle: -

    • Proper tuning of the carburetor and lean mixture setting.

    • Regular cleaning of the air filter.

    • Regular checking of the ignition system with special attention to spark plug, plug gap, ignition coil, condenser, leads ignition timing & battery voltage.

    • Proper Valve tappet clearance.

    • Steering and wheel alignment.

    • Tyre pressure and tyre wear etc.

    • Always go to a trained mechanic for servicing your vehicles

Do’s and Don’ts

    • After the vehicle has been parked / unused for a long time (three to four weeks) the engine might require tuning.

    • Switch off the engine for stops of more than two minutes.

    • At high speeds fuel consumption and exhaust pollution increases.

    • Do not press the accelerator more than necessary.

    • Do not use the choke unless absolutely necessary and also do not drive with your foot on the clutch.